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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 31-33

Evaluating the co-relation between vertical dimension of occlusion and the height of the external ear


1 Intern, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dental Sciences, KIMSDU, Karad, Maharashtra, India
2 Associate Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dental Sciences, KIMSDU, Karad, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission05-Jun-2021
Date of Decision14-Jun-2021
Date of Acceptance21-Jun-2021
Date of Web Publication31-Aug-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. R Sushma
Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dental Sciences, KIMSDU, Karad, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmo.ijmo_11_21

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  Abstract 


Background: Accurate measurement of Vertical Dimension of Occlusion is a very important step for the success of any prosthesis. It maintains the vertical height of the face and overall esthetic appearance of the patient. Various methods have been postulated to determine Vertical Dimension measurements, but no method is more accurate than the other. Aim and Objective: To determine a correlation between the Height of external Ear and vertical dimension of occlusion. Methodology: This study was conducted on 120 dentate subjects (60 males and 60 females) in the age range of 18-25 years. Each participant included, had all teeth present excluding 3rd molars, Class 1 jaw relation, and a harmonious as well as symmetrical face. Anthropometric measurements were recorded clinically in millimeters using a modified digital Vernier calliper. The data was input into a SPSSV.21 statistical software package for analysis. Pearson's correlation coefficient test was utilized to study the correlation. Result: The mean height of external ear was 61.14 mm in males and 58.55 mm in females. The mean vertical dimension of occlusion(VDO) was 62.15 mm in males and 58.55 mm in females. The results showed a significant correlation between the pair. onclusion: This is a novel technique, using height of external ear as a guide, for measurement of VDO.

Keywords: External ear, vertical dimension, vertical dimension of occlusion


How to cite this article:
Dhoot LA, Sushma R, Patil KM. Evaluating the co-relation between vertical dimension of occlusion and the height of the external ear. Int J Med Oral Res 2021;6:31-3

How to cite this URL:
Dhoot LA, Sushma R, Patil KM. Evaluating the co-relation between vertical dimension of occlusion and the height of the external ear. Int J Med Oral Res [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 May 20];6:31-3. Available from: http://www.ijmorweb.com/text.asp?2021/6/2/31/325270




  Introduction Top


Loss of natural teeth leads to loss of function (mastication and swallowing), speech (phonation), esthetics, and a negative psychological as well as social effect on an individual.[1] It ultimately leads to loss of vertical dimension (VD) and problems in chewing due to decrease in bite force, cheek biting, soft tissue sags, and also esthetic is hampered.[2] VD is one of the important components in the treatment of dentures and maintenance of vertical height of the face.[3],[4],[5] The Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms defines VD of occlusion (VDO) as the distance between two selected anatomic or marked points (usually one on the tip of the nose and the other on the chin) when in the maximal intercuspal position.[6] Researchers have recommended numerous postextraction methods such as physiologic rest position, facial esthetic appearance, deglutition, cephalometric radiographs, postextraction phonetics, measurement of the former dentures, finger length, and anthropometric measurements to determine VDO.[7],[8],[9] Focus in prosthodontics has shifted from removable to fixed prostheses with implants; still, the concepts such as jaw relation remain consistent.[10],[11] Recording correct vertical jaw relation is significant to achieve optimum function. Therefore, it is important to identify objective parameters to achieve directions for the optimal reconstruction of vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO).[12] Improper VDO can hamper the residual ridge height and affect the efficiency of mastication, the remaining natural teeth, and temporomandibular joints. Complete success of prosthesis lies in restoring function, along with achieving esthetics appearance by the patient.

It is a great challenge to clinicians for determining VDO as no reliable method is achieved.[4],[13]


  Methodology Top


This prospective cross-sectional was conducted at the Prosthodontic Department, School of Dental Sciences Krishna Institute of Medical Science, Karad. All procedures performed in the study were conducted in accordance with the ethics standard given in 1964 Declaration of Helsinki, as revised in 2013. Clearance from the Institutional Ethical Committee was obtained. A written informed consent and subject's willingness and participation in the study were ensured. This study was conducted on 120 dentate subjects (sixty males and sixty females) in the age range of 18–25 years. Subjects were selected randomly from Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences College and Hospital. Each participant included had all teeth present excluding third molars, Class 1 jaw relation, and a harmonious as well as symmetrical face. Study subjects younger than 18 and above 25 years were not considered. Participants with signs of gingival alteration, hyperplasia, inflammation, altered passive eruption, or gingival recession were excluded. Subjects with open bite or deep bite cases, teeth anomalies, attrition, extensive prosthesis or restorations in the oral cavity, temporomandibular joint disorders or any other pathology in the maxillofacial region, history of trauma, and orthodontic treatment were not included in the study. All the readings were recorded with the patient seated on a dental chair with mandible parallel to the ground. The patient was asked to bite lightly on his/her posterior teeth with the lips in competent position. Anthropometric measurement of VOD was recorded clinically in millimeters using a modified digital Vernier caliper. Anthropometric measurement of VOD was recorded clinically in millimeters as shown in [Table 1]. A modified digital Vernier calliper under brand name Yuri was used. Furthermore, a standardized digital photograph of the face was generated from the frontal aspect and lateral aspect using a digital camera. For this study, the following anthropological readings from face were selected:
Table 1: Descriptive statistics vertical dimension of occlusion and height of the external ear

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  1. Base of the nose and inferior of the chin reading, as shown in [Figure 1], which was considered as VDO reading
  2. Height of the external ear, as shown in [Figure 2].
Figure 1: Vertical dimension of occlusion

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Figure 2: Height of external ear

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  Results Top


One hundred and twenty subjects entered the study; sixty males and sixty females with an age range of 18–25 years.

For all the parameters of the study, mean standard deviation and range were calculated. The data were input into a SPSSV.21 statistical software package for analysis. Pearson's correlation coefficient test was utilized to study the correlation. There was a strong positive correlation (r = 0.7942), P < 0.000 for male and female for the pair VDO and height of ear.


  Discussion Top


Patients are becoming increasingly aware of their dental appearances and for many; esthetic concerns have become one of the primary reasons for seeking dental treatment.[14] Determining the correct VDO enhances the function of the prosthesis as well as esthetic appearance.[15] There are many techniques which include the use of anterior teeth measurements, closet speaking space, swallowing method, patients' neuromuscular perception, cephalometric radiographs, and intraoral and extraoral anatomic landmarks.[16] Methods such as pre-extraction records of vertical and horizontal overlap of natural anterior teeth, speaking method, and tattoo dot method require pre records which may not always be available.[17] In this study, there was a positive correlation between VDO and height of the external ear (r = 0.7942). Chotimah, 2019, showed that there is a significant correlation between the height of the ear leaf and the measurement of VDO.[18] This method is simple, inexpensive, decreases the chair time, and VDO estimation is based on objective measurements, rather than subjective. Hence,this method could be recommended for everyday practice to determine VDO.[19],[4] There were certain limitations of this study – subject with deformity of the external ear, Class 1 malocclusion, and soft tissue bulk under the chin. As there are limitations of this study and no reliable method is achieved, it was challenging for the clinicians to determine the VDO.[13] Therefore, findings of the current study need more research to be carried out on a larger sample size.


  Conclusion Top


The study showed that there is a positive relationship between VDO and the height of the external Ear. Therefore this method can be useful in daily practice to determine VDO.

Financial support and sponsorship

This study was finanacially supported by Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed to be University, Karad - 415110. Maharashtra.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
2.
Waseem-Ul-Ayoub D, Rashid R, Scholar PG. Novel Technique to Determine Vertical Dimension of Occlusion from Interpupillary Distance in Kashmiri Population. International Journal of Engineering Science. 2017 Sep;14955.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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Cesto FM, Domareski L, Samra AP, Neppelenbroek KH, Campanha NH, Urban VM. Overlay removable partial denture as temporary restoration of vertical dimension of occlusion in a bruxist patient. RGO-Revista Gaúcha de Odontol 2015;63:95-102.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
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Krishnamurthy D, Shanmuganathan DN. An anthropometric correlation of vertical dimension of occlusion, length of finger and linear ear length among dentulous patients-An observational study. Eur J Mol Clin Med 2021;8:549-57.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Al Baker A, Habib SR, Al Amri MD. Preserving esthetics, occlusion and occlusal vertical dimension in a patient with fixed prostheses seeking dental implant treatment. Saudi Dent J 2016;28:203-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Majeed MI, Haralur SB, Khan MF, Al Ahmari MA, Al Shahrani NF, Shaik S. An anthropometric study of cranio-facial measurements and their correlation with vertical dimension of occlusion among Saudi Arabian subpopulations. Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2018;6:680-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
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Igić M, Krunić N, Aleksov L, Kostić M, Igić A, Petrović MB, et al. Determination of vertical dimension of occlusion by using the phonetic vowel “O” and “E”. Vojnosanit Pregl 2015;72:123-31.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Johnson A, Wildgoose DG, Wood DJ. The determination of freeway space using two different methods. J Oral Rehabil 2002;29:1010-3.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Ladda R, Bhandari AJ, Kasat VO, Angadi GS. A new technique to determine vertical dimension of occlusion from anthropometric measurements of fingers. Indian J Dent Res 2013;24:316-20.  Back to cited text no. 11
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Strajnić L, Stanisić-Sinobad D, Marković D, Stojanović L. Cephalometric indicators of the vertical dimension of occlusion. Coll Antropol 2008;32:535-41.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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Discacciati JA, Lemos de Souza E, Vasconcellos WA, Costa SC, Barros Vde M. Increased vertical dimension of occlusion: Signs, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and options. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14:123-8.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Klages U, Bruckner A, Zentner A. Dental aesthetics, self-awareness, and oral health-related quality of life in young adults. Eur J Orthod 2004;26:507-14.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Tin-Oo MM, Saddki N, Hassan N. Factors influencing patient satisfaction with dental appearance and treatments they desire to improve aesthetics. BMC Oral Health 2011;11:6.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Nagpal A, Parkash H, Bhargava A, Chittaranjan B. Reliability of different facial measurements for determination of vertical dimension of occlusion in edentulous using accepted facial dimensions recorded from dentulous subjects. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2014;14:233-42.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
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18.
Chotimah C. Correlation Ear Leaf Height with Measurement of Vertical Dimension of Occlusion. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology. 2019 Jul 1;13(3).  Back to cited text no. 18
    
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Munshi MS, Shah MU, Shaikh MI, Shahnawaz S, Awais F, Yasser F, et al. Role of anthropometric measurements in determining occlusal vertical dimension. Pakistan Oral and Dental Journal. 2020 Jul 1;40(2):103-6.  Back to cited text no. 19
    


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    Tables

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