|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 31-33
Evaluating the co-relation between vertical dimension of occlusion and the height of the external ear
Lekhika Ashok Dhoot1, R Sushma2, Krupa Mahesh Patil1
1 Intern, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dental Sciences, KIMSDU, Karad, Maharashtra, India
2 Associate Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dental Sciences, KIMSDU, Karad, Maharashtra, India
|Date of Submission||05-Jun-2021|
|Date of Decision||14-Jun-2021|
|Date of Acceptance||21-Jun-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||31-Aug-2021|
Dr. R Sushma
Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dental Sciences, KIMSDU, Karad, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Accurate measurement of Vertical Dimension of Occlusion is a very important step for the success of any prosthesis. It maintains the vertical height of the face and overall esthetic appearance of the patient. Various methods have been postulated to determine Vertical Dimension measurements, but no method is more accurate than the other. Aim and Objective: To determine a correlation between the Height of external Ear and vertical dimension of occlusion. Methodology: This study was conducted on 120 dentate subjects (60 males and 60 females) in the age range of 18-25 years. Each participant included, had all teeth present excluding 3rd molars, Class 1 jaw relation, and a harmonious as well as symmetrical face. Anthropometric measurements were recorded clinically in millimeters using a modified digital Vernier calliper. The data was input into a SPSSV.21 statistical software package for analysis. Pearson's correlation coefficient test was utilized to study the correlation. Result: The mean height of external ear was 61.14 mm in males and 58.55 mm in females. The mean vertical dimension of occlusion(VDO) was 62.15 mm in males and 58.55 mm in females. The results showed a significant correlation between the pair. onclusion: This is a novel technique, using height of external ear as a guide, for measurement of VDO.
Keywords: External ear, vertical dimension, vertical dimension of occlusion
|How to cite this article:|
Dhoot LA, Sushma R, Patil KM. Evaluating the co-relation between vertical dimension of occlusion and the height of the external ear. Int J Med Oral Res 2021;6:31-3
|How to cite this URL:|
Dhoot LA, Sushma R, Patil KM. Evaluating the co-relation between vertical dimension of occlusion and the height of the external ear. Int J Med Oral Res [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Jan 19];6:31-3. Available from: http://www.ijmorweb.com/text.asp?2021/6/2/31/325270
| Introduction|| |
Loss of natural teeth leads to loss of function (mastication and swallowing), speech (phonation), esthetics, and a negative psychological as well as social effect on an individual. It ultimately leads to loss of vertical dimension (VD) and problems in chewing due to decrease in bite force, cheek biting, soft tissue sags, and also esthetic is hampered. VD is one of the important components in the treatment of dentures and maintenance of vertical height of the face.,, The Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms defines VD of occlusion (VDO) as the distance between two selected anatomic or marked points (usually one on the tip of the nose and the other on the chin) when in the maximal intercuspal position. Researchers have recommended numerous postextraction methods such as physiologic rest position, facial esthetic appearance, deglutition, cephalometric radiographs, postextraction phonetics, measurement of the former dentures, finger length, and anthropometric measurements to determine VDO.,, Focus in prosthodontics has shifted from removable to fixed prostheses with implants; still, the concepts such as jaw relation remain consistent., Recording correct vertical jaw relation is significant to achieve optimum function. Therefore, it is important to identify objective parameters to achieve directions for the optimal reconstruction of vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO). Improper VDO can hamper the residual ridge height and affect the efficiency of mastication, the remaining natural teeth, and temporomandibular joints. Complete success of prosthesis lies in restoring function, along with achieving esthetics appearance by the patient.
It is a great challenge to clinicians for determining VDO as no reliable method is achieved.,
| Methodology|| |
This prospective cross-sectional was conducted at the Prosthodontic Department, School of Dental Sciences Krishna Institute of Medical Science, Karad. All procedures performed in the study were conducted in accordance with the ethics standard given in 1964 Declaration of Helsinki, as revised in 2013. Clearance from the Institutional Ethical Committee was obtained. A written informed consent and subject's willingness and participation in the study were ensured. This study was conducted on 120 dentate subjects (sixty males and sixty females) in the age range of 18–25 years. Subjects were selected randomly from Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences College and Hospital. Each participant included had all teeth present excluding third molars, Class 1 jaw relation, and a harmonious as well as symmetrical face. Study subjects younger than 18 and above 25 years were not considered. Participants with signs of gingival alteration, hyperplasia, inflammation, altered passive eruption, or gingival recession were excluded. Subjects with open bite or deep bite cases, teeth anomalies, attrition, extensive prosthesis or restorations in the oral cavity, temporomandibular joint disorders or any other pathology in the maxillofacial region, history of trauma, and orthodontic treatment were not included in the study. All the readings were recorded with the patient seated on a dental chair with mandible parallel to the ground. The patient was asked to bite lightly on his/her posterior teeth with the lips in competent position. Anthropometric measurement of VOD was recorded clinically in millimeters using a modified digital Vernier caliper. Anthropometric measurement of VOD was recorded clinically in millimeters as shown in [Table 1]. A modified digital Vernier calliper under brand name Yuri was used. Furthermore, a standardized digital photograph of the face was generated from the frontal aspect and lateral aspect using a digital camera. For this study, the following anthropological readings from face were selected:
|Table 1: Descriptive statistics vertical dimension of occlusion and height of the external ear|
Click here to view
- Base of the nose and inferior of the chin reading, as shown in [Figure 1], which was considered as VDO reading
- Height of the external ear, as shown in [Figure 2].
| Results|| |
One hundred and twenty subjects entered the study; sixty males and sixty females with an age range of 18–25 years.
For all the parameters of the study, mean standard deviation and range were calculated. The data were input into a SPSSV.21 statistical software package for analysis. Pearson's correlation coefficient test was utilized to study the correlation. There was a strong positive correlation (r = 0.7942), P < 0.000 for male and female for the pair VDO and height of ear.
| Discussion|| |
Patients are becoming increasingly aware of their dental appearances and for many; esthetic concerns have become one of the primary reasons for seeking dental treatment. Determining the correct VDO enhances the function of the prosthesis as well as esthetic appearance. There are many techniques which include the use of anterior teeth measurements, closet speaking space, swallowing method, patients' neuromuscular perception, cephalometric radiographs, and intraoral and extraoral anatomic landmarks. Methods such as pre-extraction records of vertical and horizontal overlap of natural anterior teeth, speaking method, and tattoo dot method require pre records which may not always be available. In this study, there was a positive correlation between VDO and height of the external ear (r = 0.7942). Chotimah, 2019, showed that there is a significant correlation between the height of the ear leaf and the measurement of VDO. This method is simple, inexpensive, decreases the chair time, and VDO estimation is based on objective measurements, rather than subjective. Hence,this method could be recommended for everyday practice to determine VDO., There were certain limitations of this study – subject with deformity of the external ear, Class 1 malocclusion, and soft tissue bulk under the chin. As there are limitations of this study and no reliable method is achieved, it was challenging for the clinicians to determine the VDO. Therefore, findings of the current study need more research to be carried out on a larger sample size.
| Conclusion|| |
The study showed that there is a positive relationship between VDO and the height of the external Ear. Therefore this method can be useful in daily practice to determine VDO.
Financial support and sponsorship
This study was finanacially supported by Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed to be University, Karad - 415110. Maharashtra.
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2]